Mahakali River shares a boundary between Nepal and India. PC: A.J.T John Singh

A key international river basin of concern to Nepal is the Ganga-Brahmaputra- Meghna Basin (GBM). The countries dependent on the basin include Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, and Nepal, which account for almost 10 percent of the world’s population. According to a 2016 UN Commission report, the GBM basin is amongst the four future risk hotspots, owing to a number of factors including increasing nutrient pollution (due to agriculture and animal husbandry activities), increasing demand (due to high population growth), as well as hydro-political tensions. Specific to Nepal and India there is a long history of political negotiation on transboundary water issues dating back to the 19th century. Recently, during the visit of the Prime Minister of Nepal to India in April 2018, both nations agreed on inland waterways connectivity between Nepal and India. A bilateral meeting held in July 2018 in Kathmandu led to an agreement to establish a bilateral coordination mechanism.